The metals/materials technology area has information on the most commonly used materials in metal fabrication ̶ carbon steels; stainless steels; high-strength, low-alloy steels (HSLAs); and the 6000 series aluminum ̶ and those that aren't as common, such as the red metals, refractory metals, titanium, and magnesium.
December 11, 2003
Welding can severely influence strengthened or hardened metals, depending on the hardening technique used. Because of this, post-weld heat treatment is often very helpful in maintaining weld joint strength because it softens or tempers any martensite or bainite that formed in the HAZ.
October 9, 2003
When it comes to modifying a steel's strength and hardness, it's important to not confuse hardness with hardenability and remember that hardenability characteristics are important because they help identify how much a specific steel will harden during welding.
October 9, 2003
According to a recent study sponsored by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)1, with support from NACE International—The Corrosion Society, corrosion-related direct costs such as prevention methods and infrastructure repair and replacement make up 3.1 percent of the gross domestic...
August 28, 2003
Steel classification is important in understanding what types are used in certain applications and which are used for others. For example, most commercial steels are classified into one of three groups: plain carbon, low-alloy, and high-alloy. Steel classification systems are set up and updated frequently for this type of information.
August 28, 2003
Knowing how to weld dissimilar metals is becoming more and more important. One reason is that it's often impossible for one material to provide the optimum chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics needed for an application. For this reason, as well as cost efficiency, technology specialists are experimenting with different joining processes to weld bimetal joints optimally.
June 26, 2003
When you heat or cool a piece of metal to a specific temperature, that metal goes through what's called a phase change, in which its crystal structure changes. Sometimes the change is obvious. For example, when a piece of metal melts, it goes through a phase change when the crystal structure breaks down and the metal goes from solid to liquid. When it solidifies it's also a phase change, as the structure re-forms from liquid to solid.
June 12, 2003
The trend in metal stamping is to use more and more aluminum and other lightweight materials, such as advanced high strength steel (AHSS). The need for technology to help improve metal flow of these materials in deep-drawing applications also is increasing. In many cases, a stamper's original...
June 12, 2003
Many alloys—stainless steels, HASTELLOY®, INCONEL®, INCOLOY®, MONEL®, duplex and superduplex alloys—are similar in appearance and easily mixed up after mill test reports (MTRs) and heat stamps are removed in material processing. These mix-ups can have serious consequences to the end user, including product rework, factory downtime, or premature product failure. A single mistake may cost hundreds of thousands of dollars in materials and labor to correct. In addition, any loss of consumer confidence resulting from shipping incorrect material carries incalculable costs.
May 29, 2003
Zinc, which has been used to hot-dip-galvanize steel for 250 years, provides 50 to 75 years of corrosion protection in many environments. Empirical data collected about hot-dip galvanized (HDG) steel field performance from 1940 to 1980—in environments ranging from industrial to marine to suburban—indicates that zinc can prevent base steel corrosion more than other surface treatments. Because of zinc's long-lasting protection, projects require no maintenance and therefore no maintenance costs.
April 24, 2003
Dear Elmer:Is there a way to weld 1018 cold-rolled steel to cast iron? If so, how?JamesOwings Mills, Md.Dear James:You can weld 1018 low-carbon steel to cast iron using shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and a nickel-based ENiFe electrode.Clean the surfaces before you start. If the joint is highly...
February 27, 2003
Talk about a can of worms ... From crystalline structures to phase diagrams and interstitial solutions, from microstructures to allotropic transformations, it sometimes seems that for every question metallurgy can answer, for every problem it can solve, it creates two more.
February 28, 2002
Advances in the use of aluminum for cars and trucks could pave the way for greater use of the metal in the future.