Selecting, installing, and maintaining a through-arm robotic GMAW gun

September 10, 2012
By: Ryan Lizotte

In recent years, through-arm robots have begun to replace conventional over-the-arm models. Following these selection, installation, and maintenance guidelines for a through-arm robotic GMAW gun can help you make a smooth transition.

Through-arm robotic GMAW gun

When installing a through-arm robotic GMAW gun, allow approximately 1.5 inches of slack to prevent undue stress on the power cable and power pin, and minimize the opportunity for damage to either component.

Robotic welding systems are all about speed and repeatability. When implemented properly, they can help companies gain greater productivity and higher weld quality, while also lowering their costs and, in some cases, providing them with a competitive edge.

These systems have undergone technology improvements that build on their advantages. For instance, in recent years, the industry has begun to shift from conventional robots with over-the-arm robotic gas metal arc welding (GMAW) guns to through-arm robots. These robots feature robotic GMAW guns with cable assemblies that run—as the name suggests— through the arm of the robot.

One significant advantage of this style of robotic GMAW gun is its durability. Because the arm of the robot protects the power cable, the cable is less prone to wear from routine torsion, and it is protected from catching on fixturing or rubbing against the robot — all situations that can lead to premature failure.

Because they don’t require a mounting arm, through-arm robotic guns also provide a smaller work envelope. As a result, they are particularly well-suited for applications that require access to tight spaces. The automotive industry, for example, often uses through-arm robots.

Just like any piece of welding equipment, however, through-arm robotic GMAW guns require careful selection and maintenance. They also require a few precautions during the installation process.


Choosing a through-arm gun is much the same as choosing a conventional robotic GMAW gun, with the exception of the power cable selection. These power cables typically are sold in predetermined lengths according to the make and model of the robot, as opposed to the varying cable lengths available for over-the-arm robots. Having set lengths helps minimize cable kinking within the arm of the robot and also helps simplify gun installation. Always know your robot make and model when placing an order for a new gun.

When choosing a style of through-arm robotic GMAW gun, look for one that offers good power cable rotation. For example, some guns have a rotating power connection on the front of the cable that allows it to be rotated 360 degrees. This ability to rotate freely provides stress relief for the cable and power pin, and allows for greater maneuverability for a wider range of applications. It also helps prevent kinking that could lead to poor wire feeding, conductivity issues, or premature wear or failure. Look for power cables constructed of durable components and materials to help prevent similar wear or failure.

It also is important to select the proper gun amperage and be certain that it has the proper duty cycle for the given application. Most manufacturers offer guns up to 500 amps, in both air- and water-cooled models.  

Finally, identify whether the robot has collision software, or if the robotic GMAW gun needs to be paired with a clutch to protect it in a collision.


Installing a through-arm gun incorrectly can lead to a host of problems, not the least of which is cable failure. Incorrect installation also can result in weld quality issues, such as porosity caused by poor electrical connections; premature consumable failure caused by poor conductivity or burnbacks; and, potentially, failure of the entire robotic GMAW gun. To prevent such problems, you must consult the manufacturer’s instructions for each specific GMAW gun.

through-arm robotic GMAW gun

Figure 1: To gain the advantages of a through-arm robotic GMAW gun, it is important to carefully select and maintain the gun and also to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for installation.

It also is important to note that the power cable for a through-arm robotic GMAW gun needs to be installed in a slightly different manner than the cable for a conventional over-the-arm gun. Consider these guidelines:

  • First, position the robot with the wrist and top axis at 180 degrees, parallel to each other.

  • Install the insulating disc and spacer the same as with an over-the-arm gun. Be certain that the power cable position is also correct. The cable should have the proper “lie,” with the robot’s top axis at 180 degrees.

  • Avoid a very taut power cable, as it can cause undue stress on the power pin. It also can damage the cable once the welding current passes through it. For that reason, it’s important to make sure the power cable has approximately 1.5 inches of slack when installing it (see Figure 1).
  • Make sure the stud on the front of the power cable is fully inserted into the front connector of the through-arm gun. To achieve this result, always install the stud into the front housing before bolting the front end onto the robot wrist. By pulling the cable through the wrist and making the connections in front of the gun, it’s easy to slide the whole assembly back (once the cable is fastened) and bolt it onto the wrist. This extra step ensures the cable is seated and allows for maximum continuity and maximum power cable life. 

    Be sure to position the wire feeder close enough so that the power cable will not be stretched unnecessarily after installation. Having a wire feeder that is too far away for the length of the power cable can cause undue stress on the cable and front-end components.


Consistent preventive maintenance is key to the longevity of any robotic GMAW gun, including the through-arm style. During routine pauses in production, check for clean, secure connections between the GMAW gun neck, the diffuser or retaining heads, and the contact tip. Also, check that the nozzle is secure and any seals around it are in good condition. Having tight connections from the neck through the contact tip helps ensure a solid electrical flow throughout the gun and minimizes heat buildup that could cause premature failure, poor arc stability, quality issues, and rework.

Check regularly that the welding cable leads are secured properly, and assess the condition of the welding cable on the robotic GMAW gun. Look for signs of wear, including small cracks or tears, and replace as necessary.

Spatter buildup can cause excessive heat in the consumables and GMAW guns and block shielding gas flow. Visually inspect consumables and the gun on a regular basis for signs of spatter. Clean the gun as needed, and replace consumables as necessary. Adding a nozzle-cleaning station (also called a reamer or spatter cleaner) to the weld cell also can help. Like its name implies, a nozzle-cleaning station removes spatter (and other debris) that builds up in the nozzle and diffuser. Using this equipment in conjunction with a sprayer that applies an antispatter compound can further protect against spatter accumulation on the consumables and the through-arm robotic GMAW gun.

Ryan Lizotte

Field Technical Support Specialist
2570 North Talbot Road
Windsor, Ontario N0R 1L0

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