Circle grid analysis (CGA)
Also known as circle grid strain analysis, CGA is a method of measuring the strain levels of sheet metal after a part is formed by stamping or drawing. A grid of circles of specific diameter is etched to the surface of the sheet metal. The forming process deforms the circles, stretching the diameters in one direction (the major strain) and compressing the diameters in the other direction (the minor strain). The difference between the major and minor diameters from the original diameter is the amount of strain.
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Colors in welds and what they mean - by Josh Welton The variety of colors that can occur in welds might surprise you. Sometimes they are desirable and sometimes not. It all depends on the material, the industry, and the application.
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