Selected articles from September 2003 issue published on TheFabricator.com:
A wiper die is a piece of tooling used in tube bending that helps keep the bend from wrinkling. While there are many reasons and ways to use a wiper die in a tube bending maching, you should also know what types are available, their differences, and how to choose the right one for your application.
To reduce weight and cost for all types of products, design engineers often specify tubes and pipes with thinner walls instead of the previously used heavier-walled tubes and pipes. Shorter tube or pipe lengths also achieve the same objectives, but usually they require sharper or more complex bends. These designs make the tube bender's task more difficult.
Hydroforming has become a competitive metal forming method and has succeeded in many applications because of its weight- and cost-saving attributes, elimination of joining operations, and ability to offer part design for confined spaces.
The most common way to establish tube length after hydroforming is by cutting or shearing the tube to a specified dimension; however, cutting out this step can reduce scrap. A new method designed to eliminate this step combines forming the end of a tube to resemble its final form with using a hydroform die to correct end position variations off the bender. While this approach eliminates the final shear trim operation, it also presents new challenges.
Hydroforming is one of the most important fields in production manufacturing. In recent years many single presses, groups of presses, and entire production plants for internal high-pressure (IHP) hydroforming of tubes and extrusions have been installed, especially in the Americas and in Europe. The driving force behind this development has been the efficient production of automotive parts.
Roll forming is a common method for producing steel tubes. It is a continuous process in which a strip is guided through several sets of rolls that form the strip into the desired shape. After the final shape is achieved, tube edges are welded together to form a closed section. After the welding operation, the tube is sized through another set of rolls to obtain the required diameter.
The butler slipped through the pantry area with the warm milk and, after adding some arsenic, served the beverage to his master. The butler had been gradually increasing the amount of arsenic over many months, so the change in the milk's taste wasn't noticeable. Soon the mistress and her nefarious servant would be rid of the one thing stopping their affair.
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