Selected articles from October/November 2011 issue published on TheFabricator.com:
As the use of thick-walled pipe for API applications grows, so does the need to verify that it has been correctly normalized. Use of 2-D simulation verifies that the temperatures and heating pattern needed to obtain the desired strength and toughness have been achieved.
In conventional metalforming operations, the main way to reduce friction between the tooling and the workpiece is to apply a lubricant. Another supplementary method, which has been used for decades, is to introduce ultrasonic energy to the tooling, resulting in microscopic, high-frequency vibrations that reduce friction and improve surface finish.
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