October 20, 2011
In conventional metalforming operations, the main way to reduce friction between the tooling and the workpiece is to apply a lubricant. Another supplementary method, which has been used for decades, is to introduce ultrasonic energy to the tooling, resulting in microscopic, high-frequency vibrations that reduce friction and improve surface finish.
October 10, 2011
As the use of thick-walled pipe for API applications grows, so does the need to verify that it has been correctly normalized. Use of 2-D simulation verifies that the temperatures and heating pattern needed to obtain the desired strength and toughness have been achieved.