Metals/Materials Articles

The metals/materials technology area has information on the most commonly used materials in metal fabrication ̶ carbon steels; stainless steels; high-strength, low-alloy steels (HSLAs); and the 6000 series aluminum ̶ and those that aren't as common, such as the red metals, refractory metals, titanium, and magnesium.

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Metallurgy Matters: Influencing weld strength

April 24, 2015

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Weld metal strength: It’s a subject that’s often discussed, and just as often misunderstood. To fully consider how strong weld metal will be or how you can strengthen it, you have to think about not only the preweld decisions that influence weld strength, but also the postweld reactions and...

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Metallurgy Matters: Reactions speak louder than words

April 6, 2015

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Before we get into nonferrous gas-metal reactions, let’s look at one of the ways you can identify potential cold-cracking problems in steel. In the May/June 2004 issue, we looked at cold cracking—also known as hydrogen cracking, delayed cracking, and under-bead cracking—as it relates to...

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Stainless Steel Workshop: Storing and reconditioning filler metals

April 6, 2015

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For years fabricators have questioned the need for properly storing opened containers of electrodes in a controlled environment. The cost of holding ovens, as well as the discipline required to use them, has had fabricators second-guessing the benefits of such a practice. Regardless of the type of...

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Improving the performance of transfer dies

April 1, 2015

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The use of high-strength work materials has dramatically increased the performance requirements on the stamping and forming tools. The selection of the proper tool steel grade at each transfer die station plays a large role in optimizing productivity. The tooling’s performance may be enhanced further with the addition of a coating.

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WorldAutoSteel Guidelines for AHSS shed light on lightweighting

March 25, 2015

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Advanced high-strength steels are made differently in the steel mill, and they need to be processed differently in part manufacturing. WorldAutoSteel released forming and welding guidelines intended to help the users of these products work through the differences.

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Stainless Steel Workshop: Weldability of ferritic stainless steels

March 23, 2015

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Q: What filler wires are best-suited for welding ferritic stainless steel? A: Automotive exhaust systemand component manufacturers such as ArvinMeritor, Benteler, Faurecia, and Delphi have welded ferritic stainless steel for years. Their choice of filler metal, either a 409 or a 439, provided a...

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Stainless Steel Workshop: Stainless steel production certification

March 23, 2015

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There continues to be confusion in the marketplace about the conformance standard fr the various classifications of stainless steel products. The American Welding Society establishes guidelines to which manufacturers must conform depending on the specification. However, within the specification,...

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Stainless Steel Workshop: Ferritic stainless steels

March 20, 2015

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Q: What are the advantages of ferritic stainless steels? A: When a fabrication requires corrosion resistance and high performance, your foremost concern is its affordability. One metal that can meet this demand is ferritic stainless steel. Grades include AISI type 409, 11CfCb, 430, 436, 439, and...

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Stainless Steel Workshop: Controlling Corrosion

March 20, 2015

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Q: How do I control corrosion in stainless steel? A: Corrosion in stainless steel is one of the most troublesome technical concerns for fabricators. Whether localized or widespread, corrosion takes many forms, depending on the particular service environment. Some common types are general...

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Metallurgy Matters: From one extreme to the other

March 19, 2015

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In terms of temperatures, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) has it all—from near liquidus to near ambient and everything in between—a fact that makes the HAZ a tricky piece of real estate to understand the predict. Why? Remember, a number of metallurgical changes can take place in hot metal, and...

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Metallurgy Matters: Unlike oil and water, gas and metal can really mix it up

March 17, 2015

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Gas-metal reactions take place every time you weld. They happen quickly, especially at temperatures above 3,000 degrees F, and can cause serious problems. Of course, not all gas-metal reactions are bad; some are designed in, while others simply take place with no ill effects. But some prove quite...

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Metallurgy Matters: Solidification—It’s more than meets the eye

March 16, 2015

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There’s a lot going on as your weld puddle solidifies. Grains are trying to grow in a variety of directions, and the entire process can get quite competitive, because some grains grow faster and block the growth of others. Which grains grow faster depends on their orientation at the point where...

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Metallurgy Matters: The tricky subject of weldability

March 9, 2015

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Welding metallurgy is a science, but it’s far from perfect. I mention this here because my January/February column elicited a number of critical, if not scathing, e-mails concerning everything from a typo in Figure 3 to my generalizing the precise and exacting science of metallurgy. The...

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Metallurgy Matters: Welding’s effect on strengthened steel

March 9, 2015

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As I mentioned in the September/October issue, welding can severely influence strengthened or hardened metals, depending on the hardening technique used. Hardening Techniques and Welding Effects Work- or strain-hardened metals exposed to the intense localized head of welding tend to recrystallize...

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Metallurgy Matters: The science of welding metallurgy

March 9, 2015

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It’s time to narrow our focus and look at the science of welding metallurgy, a branch of metallurgy that addresses the behavior of a metal during welding and, just as important, the effects of welding on a metal’s properties. Think about what happens when you weld together two pieces of...

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