The Lincoln Electric Company

Frank Armao

Contributing Writer
The Lincoln Electric Company
22801 St. Clair Ave.
Cleveland, OH 44117


Phone: 216-481-8100
fax: 216-486-1751
www.lincolnelectric.com
Contact via email
He is a member of the AWS D1 Committee, chairman of the AWS D1 Aluminum Subcommittee, and vice chairman of the AWS D8G Automotive Aluminum Arc Welding Committee.

Aluminum Workshop: What not to do when excessive contact tip burnback occurs

January 29, 2016

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Frank Armao explains why contact tips are important in the welding process and what you shouldn't do to remedy burnback problems.

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Aluminum Workshop: Fine-line lack of fusion and its causes

November 16, 2015

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Q: I recently fabricated a large component from 1-in.-thick 5083 aluminum. The customer required it to be radiographed. His inspector failed one of the radiographs because of a lack of fusion (LOF) discontinuity. I looked at the radiograph and I can’t see any discontinuity. Could the inspector be...

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Aluminum Workshop: Defining, stopping porosity in aluminum welds

September 28, 2015

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Q: I’m having quite a bit of trouble with porosity in my aluminum welds lately. Can you tell me the sort of measures I should take to minimize the porosity? A: Let’s first define the basic cause of weld porosity in aluminum and then go on to summarize the major causes. All porosity in...

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Aluminum Workshop: The real deal when welding aluminum and steel

July 23, 2015

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Rumor has it that fabricating aluminum and steel components in the same building can cause contamination in the aluminum. Is this true or is it just a myth? Frank Armao has the answer.

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Aluminum Workshop: What to know when changing shielding gas with pulsed GMAW

May 12, 2015

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Q: Recently I bought a new high-end pulsing power supply, which has different modes for all of the common materials and wire diameters. I was getting great results with 3/64-in. 5356 wire and 100 percent argon shielding gas. When I changed to a mixture of 70 percent argon/30 percent helium, the arc...

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Aluminum Workshop: Matching filler alloys with A356

March 16, 2015

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Q: I need to do a lot of welding on A356 aluminum castings. Can you tell me which filler alloy I should use? A: Alloy 356 and its variants (A356, B356, C356) is an aluminum-silicon-magnesium (AISiMg) alloy containing about 7 percent silicon and 0.35 percent magnesium. It is heat-treatable in the...

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Aluminum Workshop: Why it’s so hard to weld anodized aluminum

January 20, 2015

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Q: I bought some anodized 6061-T6 tubing to make a structural framework and I’m having trouble welding it. The welds are black and ugly. Can you help? A: I think I can help. First, it would be helpful to explain what anodizing is. Anodizing is a reverse plating operation of sorts in which the...

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Aluminum Workshop: Welding 6061-T6 without filler metal; choosing shielding gas for GMAW

January 6, 2015

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Q: I’m trying to use gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) without filler metal to join 6061-T6, and almost every weld I make cracks. What’s going on? A: A common aluminum alloy, 6061-T6 is welded every day, so we assume it must be easy to weld. Unfortunately, it isn’t. In fact, 6061 and the other...

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Aluminum Workshop: Welding anodized 6061-T6 extruded tubing, 7075 series aluminum

January 6, 2015

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Q: I bought anodized 6061-T6 extruded tubing and have been trying to gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW) if, but the results so far haven’t been satisfactory. The welds look black and porous. I’m an experienced welder, and I’ve welded aluminum before, but I’ve never run into this. Is there...

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Aluminum Workshop: Choosing an aluminum alloy

January 5, 2015

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Q: I have a project I want to build from aluminum sheet and extrusions. Some of my friends tell me to make it entirely from 6061-T6. Other tell me to use other alloys, mostly 5000 series. The project entails a lot of welding. Which alloy should I use? A: Without knowing more details about your...

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Aluminum Workshop: Defining cast and helix

January 5, 2015

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Q: What are cast and helix? I keep hearing about them, but no one seems to really know what they are. A: First of all, cast and helix are two separate attributes of spooled wires intended for gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The terms have no meaning for straight cut lengths of wire meant for gas...

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Aluminum Workshop: Understanding AC and HAZ ‘cracks’

January 2, 2015

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Q: I know that when aluminum alloys are gas tungsten arc-welded (GTAW), usually we use alternating current (AC) because it give some sort of cleaning action. Can you explain what it is and how it works? A: Sure, let’s try. But before I start, let me admit that this explanation is a bit of a...

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Aluminum Workshop: Defining arc rectification

January 2, 2015

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Q: Sometimes when I’m AC gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) aluminum, the arc will start to flutter for a while. I can see it and hear it. Usually it goes away after a few seconds. What’s going on? A: First of all, the good news is that you’re not imagining it. This phenomenon is fairly common...

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Aluminum Workshop: Using 4043 versus 4047 filler wire

December 30, 2014

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Q: I usually use 4043 filler wire for welding 6061-T6 and castings. My friend told me I should switch to 4047 because it’s stronger. Is that true? It’s more expensive than 4043. Is it worth it? A: As you know, 4043 and 5356 are the most common aluminum filler alloys. In fact, these two alloys...

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Aluminum Workshop: Cleaning aluminum before welding

December 29, 2014

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Q: What’s the best way to clean aluminum before welding? How long can I wait to weld it before it needs to be cleaned again? A: Preweld cleaning requires two operations: oil and grease removal and oxide removal. Before you do anything else, remove any oil, grease, or water vapor from the...

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