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Consumables Corner: Issues with incomplete fusion

June 27, 2014 | By Jay Ginder, Jerry Mathison

Q: Recently our shop started using metal-cored wire. On one side we perform full-penetration welds to D1.1 structural code on 3/4- to 1-1/2-in.-thick plate. On the second side we carbon-arc-gouge to clean the metal and then we do a magnetic particle inspection before welding. We encounter two...

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Consumables Corner: Figuring out FCAW Charpy V-notch failure

June 26, 2014 | By Jay Ginder, Jerry Mathison

Q: We performed an AWS D1.1 procedure qualification test using gas-shielded FCAW. We used a 0.052-in. E71T-9C electrode with 100 percent CO2 shielding at 200 amps and 26 V on 1-in. thick plate. We used a preheat and interpass temperature of 70 degrees F. Our pass layer sequence was three full...

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Consumables Corner: Simple steps to avoid cracking

June 25, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco

Q: When welding a thick section of a forged 4130 ring to a thinner A36 plate in a T-joint configuration, we experience longitudinal cracking issues that originate from the ends of the welds. The required fillet size is ½ inch. It is skip-welded 12 in. on 18-in. center-to-center spacing. The...

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Consumables Corner: Before choosing filler, know your 4140

June 24, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco

Q: We need to weld 4140 steel to AR 360 plate and are thinking of using an E120 electrode to try and match the strength. Is this the right electrode for our welding application? A: Before you choose a filler metal, there are a few things you should consider for this application. First, 4140...

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Consumables Corner: Pinning down the cause of porosity in SAW

June 23, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco

Q: Our company produces large structures fabricated from mild steel plate with a small amount of HSLA forgings ranging from 0.5 in. to 4 in. thick. Our main process is submerged arc welding (SAW) using a mild steel electrode and a neutral-bonded flux. We have been experiencing some issues with...

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Consumables Corner: Reducing weld cleanup in pulsed GMAW

June 20, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco, Rob Koltz, Steve Sigler

Q: Our company manufactures the main structures used to build fitness equipment. These structures are mild steel tubing of various shapes and sizes and in relatively thin material, typically 10 to 16 gauge. We are using 90 percent argon/10 percent CO2 shielding gas with a 0.035-in.-dia. ER70S-3...

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Consumables Corner: Eliminating porosity in submerged-arc welding

June 19, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco, Rob Koltz, Steve Sigler

Q: Our shop manufactures bridge and structural steel components. Most of the material is A36 or A572 and welded with E70X-X class electrodes using FCAW with 75 percent Ar/25 percent CO2 shielding gas (bottle-supplied) and SAW. We're having issues with porosity in our SAW process. We find that once...

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Consumables Corner: Longitudinal cracking: A check list for prevention

June 18, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco

Q: We are welding several fabricated parts made from A514 (T1) steel using an AWS A5.29, 3/32-in-dia. E110 FCAW electrode. On one particular part we are experiencing longitudinal weld cracking. The structure is a 4-in. plate with a square cut out of the center and a 1.5-in. plate welded back in its...

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Consumables Corner: Addressing cracking on free-machining steels

June 17, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco

Q: We are a small company that fabricates and welds various parts and products for numerous companies. One of our customers is supplying us with parts for a particular weldment. All of the individual parts are made from A36 steel except for one, which is made from 12L14 steel. We are using GMAW...

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Consumables Corner: Identifying pockmarking causes in structural SAW

June 16, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco

Q: Our company manufactures various structural components, typically made from A36 or A572 steel grades in plate, I-beam, or channel. Based on the application we’ll use GMAW, FCAW, or SAW. On random occasions we experience pockmarking on the surface of the SAW joints. While the timing is usually...

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Consumables Corner: The thought process behind changing a weld process

June 13, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco

Q: Our company is using 0.045-in.-dia. mild steel solid wire for GMAW with 90 percent argon/10 percent CO2 shielding gas. A majority of our base metal is ¼ to 1 in. thick welded out of position about 30 percent of the time. We are considering a change in our welding process to reduce lead-times....

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Consumables Corner: Tackling root penetration problems

June 12, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco

Q: We are experiencing weld root penetration issues in our single- and multipass welds. Our base metal is A36, and we oxyfuel-cut it in thicknesses from ½ to 3 in. Most of the weld joints are standard T-joints with a few groove joints. We are using a 0.045-in.- dia. E71T-1C/M flux-cored wire with...

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Consumables Corner: Examining the root cause of distortion

June 11, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco, Rob Koltz, Steve Sigler

Q: We manufacture hydraulic cylinders. Ever since we changed our shielding gas blend, we’ve noticed a higher level of distortion. Before the change we used a 95/5 blend, but now we use 92/8, which we have documented using a 0.045-in.-dia. filler metal. Would the 92/8 blend run hotter and cause...

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Consumables Corner: The reasons for and misconceptions about preheating steel

June 10, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco

Q: We are expanding our job shop and adding the capability to work with much heavier structures, including considerably thicker materials. Some of these jobs specify high-strength materials and preheating. Some of our welders claim preheating is performed to remove water from the steel. Can you...

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Consumables Corner: Defining current density

June 5, 2014 | By Nino Mascalco, Rob Koltz, Steve Sigler

Q: Our company manufactures cylindrical structures, including tanks and smokestacks made from A36 or A572 material. The material is burned to size on a plasma table and mechanically beveled. Process limitations cause gaps in the joints during fit-up. We use a 0.045-in.-dia. solid wire with a 75...

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